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The Arctic wolf, also known as the white wolf or polar wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to Canada's Queen Elizabeth Islands, from Melville Island to Ellesmere Island. It is a medium-sized subspecies, distinguished from the northwestern wolf by its smaller size, its whiter colouration, its narrower braincase, and larger carnassials. Since 1930, there has been a progressive reduction in …Family: Canidae
The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is a large canine of South America. Its markings resemble those of foxes, but it is neither a fox nor a wolf.It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon (meaning "golden dog").. It is the largest canine in South America, weighing 20–30 kg (44–66 lb) and up to 90 cm (35 in) at the withers.Its long, thin legs and dense reddish coat give it an ...
One wolf was purported to weigh 212 pounds (96 kg), however large Alaskan wolves are known to hold up to 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of moose meat in their stomachs. The most common color for this subspecies is tawny grey or tan, but can also range from white to black.
Mar 17, 2021 · Wolves live in packs of up to 20. A single wolf can be up to 5ft in length, standing at 3ft. One of the heaviest wolves on record weighed 130lbs. A female wolf can have up to six pups. Wolves generally prefer larger prey such as deer but will settle for something smaller, such as rabbits.
The Canadian Historical Review. The odor of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds like magpies and ravens. A single wolf can be up to 5ft in length, standing at 3ft. Offspring may leave to form their own packs on the onset of sexual maturity and in response to competition for food within the pack. The milk canines erupt after one month. American badger T. Then the other members feed. Family Felidae. Among New World wolves, the Mexican wolf diverged around 5, years ago. Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them. It is sometimes called timber wolf or grey wolf. Further information: List of gray wolf populations by country. Archived from the original on May 16, Smithsonian Magazine. When food is scarce, this is done at the expense of other family members, especially non-pups. Featured Character. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Predatory attacks may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans. There is a legend that the last one was killed there in by a character called MacQueen. Dai Vinh November 23, at am - Reply. Bay cat C. The wolf must give chase and gain on its fleeing prey, slow it down by biting through thick hair and hide, and then disable it enough to begin feeding. Family Canidae includes dogs. Japanese badger M. Subspecies of carnivore. Long-nosed mongoose X. OCLC Small family listed below. Canid News. Retrieved June 3, Wolves usually measure 26 to 38 inches 66 to 97 cm at the shoulder. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is the mange mite Sarcoptes scabiei ,  though they rarely develop full-blown mange , unlike foxes. People were generally positive, but farmers living in rural areas wanted to be paid for livestock that were killed by the wolves. In China, the wolf was traditionally associated with greed and cruelty and wolf epithets were used to describe negative behaviours such as cruelty "wolf's heart" , mistrust "wolf's look" and lechery "wolf-sex". Wolves usually stalk old or sick animals, but they do not always catch what they stalk. African civet C. Wolves are the largest members of the dog family. None of the sheep were eaten. Island Press. Aardwolf P. Marbled polecat V. A recent study found that the domestic dog is descended from wolves tamed less than 16, years ago south of the Yangtze River in China. The skull can be identified by its reduced carnassials , small upper incisors, and long canine teeth. It has a crushing pressure of nearly 1, pound per square inch compared with around for a large dog. Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation. See also: List of fictional wolves. White-nosed coati N. Sloth bear M. Canis lupus arctos Pocock , They frequently eat waterfowl and their eggs. Extant Carnivora species. Victoria, British Columbia. Bat-eared fox O. Media related to Canis lupus at Wikimedia Commons.
The Interior Alaskan wolf   Canis lupus pambasileus , also known as the Yukon wolf , is a subspecies of gray wolf native to parts of British Columbia , the Northwest Territories ,  Interior Alaska and Yukon. It is recognized as a subspecies of Canis lupus in the taxonomic authority Mammal Species of the World Elliot distinguishes this wolf by the teeth in both jaws being large and heavy, and along with the skull exceed those of C. Its coat ranges from black to white or a mix of both. The wolf has a height of 85 cm Individual weights can vary from 32 kilograms 71 lb to 60 kilograms lb. The lifespan ranges from 4 to 10 years, the oldest being 12 years. Average pack size is 7 to 9 wolves, but can vary; like other wolves, the pack consists of a mated pair and their offspring. The pair is usually the only ones that breed. A wolf that has left its pack may travel up to km The minimum breeding age is 1 year, and the average litter size is 4—6 pups. While exact data is not available, it is suspected that various types of diseases, such as rabies and distemper , affect this subspecies, sometimes to the point that the stability of the subspecies is changed in parts of its region. The population in Canadian Yukon is estimated to be 5,, which ranges in all of Yukon except for Kluane National Park. The population density depends on prey, with the densest population being in Teslin, Yukon , Canada where there are 9 wolves per 1, square kilometers The diet of this wolf varies by region — moose is the main prey in southern Yukon, followed by boreal woodland caribou and Dall sheep. Barren-ground caribou is main prey in the North Slope. When hunting moose, wolves mainly kill calves and old moose when fleeing. Moose are more likely to stand their ground than caribou , which tend to flee, decreasing their survival rate. Wolves usually kill a caribou every 3 days during winter and eat for a day. Dall sheep are common prey in Kluane Game Sanctuary and National Park when moose and caribou are not available. In pre-colonial Canada , the local Aboriginal population hunted this wolf for its fur. This continued in the s, with colonists selling wolf furs to Aboriginal tribes in the area, who used them to line their clothing. The first true mapping of the wolf population in the Yukon began in the s and, subsequently, a program of wolf-poisoning began. This came about because of the public stigma regarding wolves during the time. A plan known as the Yukon Wolf Conservation and Management Plan was created in the s by the Yukon government in order to determine a method to control the population of wolves in Yukon. The studies that would be conducted under it were composed of two points. The first was that a reduction in the wolf population would only occur in one specified testing area at a time, of which no two could be occurring simultaneously in Yukon. The second point was that no hunting whatsoever would be allowed within the testing area, in order to have a strict control and understanding of the results of any study. The studies would also be conducted in only 7 of the 23 ecoregions in Yukon. The aftereffects of the plan in the s involved continued study and the creation of "rigid guidelines for ensuring long-term wolf conservation" and limited the amount of wolf control enacted by decreasing the scope and length of any future studies. The planning group also set forth methods of increasing public awareness of the importance of wolves and making more strict wolf hunting laws. The plan was eventually, however, opposed by environmental groups who did not wish for wolf control in any form. The first control program was started because of observations and complaints by the people of Ross River that the Filayson herd of caribou has been declining in size. In response, the government, from the beginning of the program to , reduced the number of wolf packs in the area from 25 to 7, which involved reducing the number of individual members from to In order to test if a concurrent effort would have a greater effect, hunting any caribou in the herd was also limited and controlled by a strict permit system. The result was that the number of caribou more than doubled and the number of wolves returned to their previous count before the control period. However, since the end of the program, the number of caribou has once again begun to steadily decline, though the health of the herd has remained stable regardless. While the government has wished to continue efforts at wolf control in the area, an agreement could not be made with the First Nation peoples of Ross River, so the effort was eventually abandoned. This was accomplished by aerial wolf hunting and through the use of snares  and traps. Numerous wolves were also neutered in the years between and After recovering the bodies of slain wolves, the pelts were removed and sold. The program was a test on whether decreased wolf population would cause the population of caribou , moose , and Dall sheep to increase. The resulting evidence showed that, while the Yukon wolf greatly affected and controlled the population of moose, the survival rate of adult caribou was not affected by the decrease in the number of wolves in the area, nor was the Dall sheep population affected at all. Thus, the study concluded that the Yukon wolf, along with hunting by humans, was one of the greatest controlling factors for the moose population and for the caribou population as a whole. The study also concluded that, in future testing areas, lethal methods of reducing wolf populations would be minimized, as it was clearly found during the study that sterilization was far more effective in controlling the population and it also did not affect wolf behavior. In , during the study, a big game outfitter was convicted in court of attempting to convince guides in the area to place poison on the ground. Some poisoned Yukon wolves and birds were found in the Aishihik testing area and 4 of the packs in the area lowered from 38 individual members to 8 members. The third study and control program under the Yukon Wolf Plan began under the insistence of the White River and the Kluane First Nation in regards to the Chisana caribou herd that roamed around the Saint Elias Mountains in the area. They had observed that caribou numbers has dropped from over in the early s to around by the s. The Yukon government's first response was to inactivate all hunting permits in the area. Afterwards, various studies were conducted on the herd in order to determine what could be causing it to continuously decline. Both the government and the local community were against enacting another aerial wolf hunting program and, so, the Yukon wolves were left alone in the area. Instead, a process of helping breed caribou was enacted that has, thus far, been fairly successful.
PLOS Genetics. As usual, there are a number of errors in this article. Paul Leland Haworth ed. Sometimes only one out of twelve hunts are successful. Lion P. Small Indian civet V. Despite these superstitions, no large-scale use of parts of this animal occurs. The American Society of Mammalogists : 1—4. In more recent times, some male Italian wolves originated from dog ancestry, which indicates female wolves will breed with male dogs in the wild. The maned wolf is well represented in captivity, and has been bred successfully at many zoos,  particularly in Argentina, North America part of a Species Survival Plan and Europe part of a European Endangered Species Programme. Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. They are threatened by habitat loss and being run over by automobiles. Smooth-coated otter L. He also attributed the name Canis lupus orion to a Greenland wolf specimen from Cape York , northwest Greenland. Japanese badger M. Also, wolves with pups experience greater food stresses during this period. Archived PDF from the original on December 9, Their territory is marked by scent and howling; they will fight any intruders. The wolf has a height of 85 cm Then the other members feed. There is a legend that the last one was killed there in by a character called MacQueen. Department of Agriculture in , the infamous Custer Wolf relied on coyotes to accompany him and warn him of danger. These wolves have moved into neighboring countries. When hunting large gregarious prey, wolves will try to isolate an individual from its group. Of course it is typically only the alpha male and female that breed, leaving the rest of the adult pack members to help rear the young and ensure their survival. Some gray wolves were related to all ancient and modern dogs. Archived from the original PDF on Small-toothed palm civet A. Asian palm civet P. Wayne furthermore stated that he believed the habitat in which the wolf happened to be found was a good enough characteristic to distinguish a subspecies. Since pre-Christian times, Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons took on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names. ISBN Archived from the original PDF on July 17, The largest wolf on record is not lbs. Yellow mongoose C. Marbled cat P. Fossa C. Journal of Zoology. Cystophora Hooded seal C. Anonymous December 3, at am - Reply. Wolf pack howling. The wolf is also distinguished from other Canis species by its less pointed ears and muzzle, as well as a shorter torso and a longer tail. The maned wolf is a solitary animal. Baer, Craig L. Journal of Zoology. They are not as specialized as those found in hyenas though. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them. Spotted seal P. The phylogenetic descent of the extant wolf C. Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes. The Interior Alaskan wolf   Canis lupus pambasileus , also known as the Yukon wolf , is a subspecies of gray wolf native to parts of British Columbia , the Northwest Territories ,  Interior Alaska and Yukon. The population density depends on prey, with the densest population being in Teslin, Yukon , Canada where there are 9 wolves per 1, square kilometers
Canis brachyurus , C. The maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus is a large canine of South America. It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon meaning "golden dog". It is the largest canine in South America, weighing 20—30 kg 44—66 lb and up to 90 cm 35 in at the withers. Its long, thin legs and dense reddish coat give it an unmistakable appearance. The maned wolf is a crepuscular and omnivorous animal adapted to the open environments of the South American savanna , with an important role in the seed dispersal of fruits, especially the wolf apple Solanum lycocarpum. The maned wolf is a solitary animal. It communicates primarily by scent marking , but also gives a loud call known as "roar-barking". This mammal lives in open and semi-open habitats , especially grasslands with scattered bushes and trees, in the Cerrado of south, central-west, and southeastern Brazil ; Paraguay ; northern Argentina ; and Bolivia east and north of the Andes ,  and far southeastern Peru Pampas del Heath only. The term maned wolf, as the Crin Wolf in Spanish, is an allusion to the mane of the nape. The term lobo , "wolf", originates from the Latin lupus. It also is called borochi in Bolivia. Although the maned wolf displays many fox-like characteristics, it is not closely related to foxes. It lacks the elliptical pupils found distinctively in foxes. The maned wolf's evolutionary relationship to the other members of the canid family makes it a unique animal. Electrophoretic studies did not link Chrysocyon with any of the other living canids studied. One conclusion of this study is that the maned wolf is the only species among the large South American canids that survived the late Pleistocene extinction. Fossils of the maned wolf from the Holocene and the late Pleistocene have been excavated from the Brazilian Highlands. A study on the brain anatomy of several canids placed the maned wolf together with the Falkland Islands wolf and with pseudo-foxes of the genus Pseudalopex. The maned wolf is not closely related to canids found outside South America. It is not a fox, wolf, coyote or jackal , but a distinct canid; though, based only on morphological similarities, it previously had been placed in the Canis and Vulpes genera. Speothos venaticus bush dog. Lycalopex vetulus hoary fox. Lycalopex fulvipes Darwin's fox. Lycalopex griseus South American gray fox or chilla. Lycalopex gymnocercus pampas fox. Lycalopex culpaeus culpeo or Andean fox. Lycalopex sechurae Sechuran fox or Peruvian desert fox. Cerdocyon thous crab-eating fox. Atelocynus microtis short-eared dog. Lorenz Oken classified it as Vulpes cancosa , and only in did Charles Hamilton Smith describe the genus Chrysocyon. Other authors later considered it as a member of the Canis genus. Since no other record exists of fossils in other areas, the species is suggested to have evolved in this geographic region. The maned wolf bears minor similarities to the red fox , although it belongs to a different genus. The average adult weighs 23 kg 51 lb and stands 90 cm 35 in tall at the shoulder, and has a head-body length of cm 39 in , with the tail adding another 45 cm 18 in. The maned wolf is the tallest of the wild canids; its long legs are likely an adaptation to the tall grasslands of its native habitat. The coat is marked further with a whitish tuft at the tip of the tail and a white "bib" beneath the throat. The mane is erectile and typically is used to enlarge the wolf's profile when threatened or when displaying aggression. Melanistic maned wolves do exist, but are rare. The first photograph of a black adult maned wolf was taken by a camera trap in northern Minas Gerais in Brazil in The skull can be identified by its reduced carnassials , small upper incisors, and long canine teeth. The maned wolf's rhinarium extends to the upper lip, similar to the bush dog , but its vibrissae are longer. The maned wolf's footprints are similar to those of the dog, but have disproportionately small plantar pads when compared to the well-opened digit marks. Genetically, the maned wolf has 37 pairs of autosomes within diploid genes, with a karyotype similar to that of other canids. It has 76 chromosomes, so cannot interbreed with other canids. However, its diversity is still greater than that of other canids. The maned wolf also is known for the distinctive odor of its territory markings, which has earned it the nickname "skunk wolf". The maned wolf is a twilight animal, but its activity pattern is more related to the relative humidity and temperature, similar to that observed with the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Peak activity occurs between 8 and 10 am, and 8 and 10 pm. The species is likely to use open fields for foraging and more closed areas, such as riparian forests , to rest, especially on warmer days. Unlike most large canids such as the gray wolf , the African hunting dog , or the dhole , the maned wolf is a solitary animal and does not form packs.